Map Peru
Maps copyright Hammond World Atlas Corp.

Flag of Peru


Background: Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance.
Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Area land: 1,279,996 sq km
Area water: 5,220 sq km
Coastline: 2,414 km
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Country name conventional short form: Peru
Country name former: Republic of Peru
Population: 29,248,943 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.5% (male 4,245,023/female 4,101,220); 15-64 years: 65.1% (male 9,316,128/female 9,722,258); 65 years and over: 6.4% (male 885,703/female 978,611) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 1.029% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 19.41 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 5.93 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.046 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female; total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 22.18 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 24.49 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 19.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.47 years; male: 70.55 years; female: 74.48 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 75,000 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,000 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s); adjective: Peruvian;
Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%;
Religions: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 Census);
Languages: Spanish 84.1% (official), Quechua 13% (official), Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages 0.7% (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages), other 0.2% (2007 Census);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 92.9%; male: 96.4%; female: 89.4% (2007 Census);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $276.9 billion (2010 est.); $254.8 billion (2009 est.); $252.5 billion (2008 est.);

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $153.5 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 8.7% (2010 est.); 0.9% (2009 est.); 9.8% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $9,200 (2010 est.); $8,600 (2009 est.); $8,700 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.8%; industry: 33%; services: 52.6% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 34.8% (2009);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5%; highest 10%: 37.9% (2006);
Labor force: 15.68 million (2010 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.7%; industry: 23.8%; services: 75.5% (2005);
Unemployment rate: 7.9% (2010 est.); 8.4% (2009 est.);
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment

Budget: revenues: $44.91 billion; expenditures: $47.04 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, textiles, clothing, food processing;
Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 35.79 billion kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 31.74 billion kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - exports: 111.9 million kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.



(Liberal newsmagazine), Lima

Con Nuestro Peru

(Independent newsmagazine), Lima


(Independent, conservative), Lima

El Comercio

(Centrist, largest circulation), Lima

El Diario del Cusco

(Independent), Cuzco

Peru in the News

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Displaying 17 to 20 of 33 items.

Indigenous Movements: Between Neoliberalism and Leftist Governments

After scoring resounding victories, indigenous movements of South America are encountering new challenges on institutional and state levels that they have not been able to answer.

The Mercosur Meeting

Chilean President Ricardo Lagos noted that countries in the region have yet to advance fully on integrating economic policies, while Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez used the occasion to urge members to pull back from United States-style free market policies.

Peru: Administration in Crisis

Following a string of scandals, support for Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo has sagged to a single digit in opinion polls. Lucien Chauvin reviews the Peruvian press.

Interview: Peruvian Economist Hernando de Soto

World Press Review Brazil correspondent Kenneth Rapoza interviews Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto.