Map Kyrgyzstan
Maps copyright Hammond World Atlas Corp.

Flag of Kyrgyzstan


Background: A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Over the next few years, the new president manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for himself. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won re-election in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, nationwide protests led to the resignation and expulsion of BAKIEV. He was replaced by President Roza OTUNBAEVA who will serve as president until 31 December 2011 according to a presidential decree issued 19 May 2010. Presidential elections are scheduled to be held in October 2011. Continuing concerns include: endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, and terrorism.
Location: Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Area land: 191,801 sq km
Area water: 8,150 sq km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Country name conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
Country name conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
Country name former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Population: 5,587,443 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.3% (male 834,024/female 801,750); 15-64 years: 65.4% (male 1,790,534/female 1,865,521); 65 years and over: 5.3% (male 114,200/female 181,414) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 1.427% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 23.66 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 6.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.053 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 29.27 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 34.01 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 24.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.04 years; male: 66.04 years; female: 74.24 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,800 (2009 est.);
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.);
Nationality: noun: Kyrgyzstani(s); adjective: Kyrgyzstani;
Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uighur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census);
Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%;
Languages: Kyrgyz 64.7% (official), Uzbek 13.6%, Russian 12.5% (official), Dungun 1%, other 8.2% (1999 census);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 98.7%; male: 99.3%; female: 98.1% (1999 census);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $11.85 billion (2010 est.); $12.28 billion (2009 est.); $12 billion (2008 est.);

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $4.444 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: -3.5% (2010 est.); 2.3% (2009 est.); 8.4% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,200 (2010 est.); $2,300 (2009 est.); $2,200 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 24.6%; industry: 25%; services: 50.4% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 40% (2004 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%; highest 10%: 25.9% (2004);
Labor force: 2.344 million (2007);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 48%; industry: 12.5%; services: 39.5% (2005 est.);
Unemployment rate: 18% (2004 est.);
Budget: revenues: $980 million; expenditures: $1.46 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals;
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 15.96 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 9 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 2.379 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.




Kyrgyzstan in the News

Kyrgyzstan: the Road Not Taken

In the wake of political unrest in Kyrgyzstan, thousands of Uzbek nationals have been the victims of violence within Kyrgyzstan. A third-party "peace army" could help turn the situation around.

Kyrgyzstan: Small Arms Proliferation on the Rise

The rapid spread of small arms in Kyrgyzstan is of growing concern to government officials and law enforcement agencies responsible for combating rising crime in the Central Asian state.

Kyrgyzstan: Punished by Association

Although Kyrgyzstan's main opposition leader is safely in jail, the government is keeping close watch on his home village. Sutlan Jumagulov and Asel Sagynbaeva report from Bishkek.