Map Ethiopia
Maps copyright Hammond World Atlas Corp.

Flag of Ethiopia


Background: Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission remotely demarcated the border by geographical coordinates, but final demarcation of the boundary on the ground is currently on hold because of Ethiopian objections to an international commission's finding requiring it to surrender territory considered sensitive to Ethiopia.
Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Area land: 1 million sq km
Area water: 104,300 sq km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Country name conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Country name conventional short form: Ethiopia
Country name former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
Population: 90,873,739
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.3% (male 20,990,369/female 21,067,961); 15-64 years: 51% (male 22,707,235/female 23,682,385); 65 years and over: 2.7% (male 1,037,488/female 1,388,301) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 3.194% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 42.99 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 11.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female; total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 77.12 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 88.03 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 65.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.19 years; male: 53.64 years; female: 58.81 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 6.02 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA;
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA;
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA;
Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s); adjective: Ethiopian;
Ethnic groups: Oromo 34.5%, Amara 26.9%, Somalie 6.2%, Tigraway 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Guragie 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Affar 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, other 11.3% (2007 Census);
Religions: Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.6%, traditional 2.6%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.7% (2007 Census);
Languages: Amarigna (Amharic) (official) 32.7%, Oromigna (official regional) 31.6%, Tigrigna (official regional) 6.1%, Somaligna 6%, Guaragigna 3.5%, Sidamigna 3.5%, Hadiyigna 1.7%, other 14.8%, English (official) (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (official) (1994 census);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 42.7%; male: 50.3%; female: 35.1% (2003 est.);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $84.02 billion (2010 est.); $78.52 billion (2009 est.); $72.24 billion (2008 est.);

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $30.94 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 7% (2010 est.); 8.7% (2009 est.); 11.6% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,000 (2010 est.); $900 (2009 est.); $900 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 42.9%; industry: 13.7%; services: 43.4% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 38.7% (FY05/06 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%; highest 10%: 25.6% (2005);
Labor force: 37.9 million (2007);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85%; industry: 5%; services: 10% (2009 est.);
Unemployment rate: NA%;
Budget: revenues: $4.36 billion; expenditures: $5.098 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement;
Industrial production growth rate: 9.5% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 3.46 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 3.13 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.


Reporter, The

(Independent weekly), Addis Ababa

Ethiopia in the News

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Displaying 5 to 8 of 15 items.

Ethiopia’s Struggle over Land Reform

Ayenew Haileselassie, editor of the Ethiopian business magazine Fortune, writes that Ethiopian farmers are taking an innovative approach to preventing famine in the future.

The Vultures Are Gathering

As hunger in Ethiopia threatens to reach crisis proportions, Western aid has failed to help those in need, reports Thilo Thielke of Germany's Der Spiegel magazine.

Africa Starves as War Approaches

David Pratt, writing for Glasgow's independent Sunday Herald, reports from Ethiopia on the causes of the famine that threatens to kill millions in the next few years.

Ethiopia Urged to Act Quickly

Emad Mekay, writing for Rome's Inter Press Service, reports that there's disagreement about the cause of Ethiopia's food crisis.