Sao Tome And Principe

Map Sao Tome And Principe
Maps copyright Hammond World Atlas Corp.

Flag of Sao Tome And Principe


Background: Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.
Location: Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
Area land: 964 sq km
Area water: 0 sq km
Coastline: 209 km
Country name conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
Country name conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
Country name former: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
Population: 179,506 (July 2011 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.7% (male 40,777/female 39,386); 15-64 years: 52.2% (male 46,114/female 47,509); 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 2,634/female 3,086) (2011 est.);
Population growth rate: 2.052% (2011 est.)
Birth rate: 38.03 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate: 8.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate: -9.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female; total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.);
Infant mortality rate: total: 53.21 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 51.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.);
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.11 years; male: 61.93 years; female: 64.33 years (2011 est.);
Total fertility rate: 5.08 children born/woman (2011 est.);
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA;
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA;
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA;
Nationality: noun: Sao Tomean(s); adjective: Sao Tomean;
Ethnic groups: mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese);
Religions: Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census);
Languages: Portuguese (official);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 84.9%; male: 92.2%; female: 77.9% (2001 census);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $316.9 million (2010 est.); $299 million (2009 est.); $287.5 million (2008 est.);

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): $187 million (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2010 est.); 4% (2009 est.); 5.8% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,800 (2010 est.); $1,700 (2009 est.); $1,700 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.7%; industry: 22.9%; services: 62.4% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 54% (2004 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%; highest 10%: NA%;
Labor force: 52,490 (2007);
Labor force - by occupation: note: population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing; shortages of skilled workers;
Unemployment rate: NA%;
Budget: revenues: $35.56 million; expenditures: $38.64 million (2010 est.);
Industries: light construction, textiles, soap, beer, fish processing, timber;
Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 19 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 17.67 million kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2008);
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.);

Statistics: CIA World Factbook.