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Background: The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $158.4 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: -1.9% (2010 est.); -7.1% (2009 est.); 7.1% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $11,500 (2010 est.); $11,700 (2009 est.); $12,600 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12.8%; industry: 36%; services: 51.2% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 25% (2005 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%; highest 10%: 20.8% (2006);
Labor force: 9.35 million (2010 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 29.7%; industry: 23.2%; services: 47.1% (2006);
Unemployment rate: 8.2% (2010 est.); 7.8% (2009 est.);
Budget: revenues: $50.89 billion; expenditures: $62 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining;
Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 58.28 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 49.44 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 5.169 billion kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 921 million kWh (2008 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
Displaying 1 to 7 of 14 items.
(Independent, Conservative), Bucharest
(independent, conservative, business-oriented daily), Bucharest
(Independent, mass-circulation), Bucharest
(Romanian-language, edited in Colorado, USA),
(Centrist political party), Bucharest
Displaying 1 to 4 of 13 items.
With top energy producers in South-Eastern Europe vying for shares of the market, current pipeline competition will shape energy and political landscapes for the near future.
Mismanagement, corruption and theft on a very broad scale have brought Romania to disaster.
The degree to which the Romanian economy has begun to crumble, in both the state and private sectors, puts the country at imminent risk or national bankruptcy.
Since becoming a member of the European Union, Romania has aligned itself with Europe and the United States and almost totally disengaged from its post-cold war posture.