Background: Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-Communists and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union in 2001. In 2010, the prospect of a Greek default on its euro-denominated debt created severe strains within the EMU and raised the question of whether a member country might voluntarily leave the common currency or be removed.
note: percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%;
Languages: Greek 99% (official), other 1% (includes English and French);
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 96%; male: 97.8%; female: 94.2% (2001 census);
GDP (purchasing power parity): $321.7 billion (2010 est.); $337.9 billion (2009 est.); $344.8 billion (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $302 billion (2010 est.);
GDP - real growth rate: -4.8% (2010 est.); -2% (2009 est.); 2% (2008 est.);
GDP - per capita (PPP): $30,200 (2010 est.); $31,500 (2009 est.); $32,200 (2008 est.);
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%; industry: 17.6%; services: 78.5% (2010 est.);
Population below poverty line: 20% (2009 est.);
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%; highest 10%: 26% (2000 est.);
Labor force: 5.05 million (2010 est.);
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 12.4%; industry: 22.4%; services: 65.1% (2005 est.);
Unemployment rate: 12% (2010 est.); 9.4% (2009 est.);
Budget: revenues: $114.5 billion; expenditures: $142.9 billion (2010 est.);
Industries: tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum;
Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (2010 est.);
Electricity - production: 58.79 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - consumption: 58.28 billion kWh (2007 est.);
Electricity - exports: 1.962 billion kWh (2008 est.);
Electricity - imports: 7.575 billion kWh (2008 est.);
Statistics: CIA World Factbook.
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(Independent weekly), Athens
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The opening of Cyprus's Green on April 23 gave Greek and Turkish Cypriots a chance to visit each other's territories for the first time in 29 years. Andrea Talas reports on the border opening in Hungary's HVG.
Greek police have made considerable headway in tracking down members of the left-wing Greek terrorist group, November 17. We review the Greek press coverage.
Greek press reaction to the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington
Resurgent terrorism in Greece and Italy appears to be a byproduct of NATO's role in a new European military order.